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Click on the form that is closest to your specimen to link to our general discussion of the varieties of that form. If you have an example of a spade money type not currently listed on this site, please feel free to send us an E-Mail with a detailed description or image, and we will try to provide you with more information. Knife money is less complex a subject than Spade money and most examples fall into just a few general forms, the most common of which are currently listed more will be added soon. If you have an example of a knife money type not currently listed on this site, please feel free to send us an E-Mail with a detailed description or image, and we will try to provide you with more information.

This part of the attribution guide is by far the most complicated as there are over a thousand types and it will be some time before we can include them all. We will be adding the most common types first, as they are the ones that most people will want to look up. If the type you are researching is not yet listed, and you can send us an image of it, we will be happy to try and identify it for you. Round coins occur in three general types.

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Most traditional English language references used the Wade-Giles transcription. Many recent books use the modern Pinyin transcription. He used nine reign titles during his reign. His birth name using Pinyin was Zhao Zhen. For the purposes of these coins, I will usually refer to both the reign title that appears on the coin as that is what is used by most collectors of Chinese coins , and the common personal name that the emperor is known by in the history books. I will usually include both the Wade-Giles and Pinyin transcription.


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Need help to date coins: Visit the Creounity Time Machine. All pictures are of a typical item taken from stock. This was also the first time regular script was used as all earlier cash coins exclusively used seal script. Under the Manchu Qing dynasty the trend of exclusively using the reign title of the Emperor continued and all cash coins issued during this period were written in regular script. Those from the knife money area have a square hole and are denominated in hua. List of early round coins produced between BC and BC: During the Qin dynasty production of the Ban Liang cash coins continued and its weight was standardised.

Under the Western Han dynasty the Ban Liang cash coins of the earlier Qin dynasty were retained until a series of monetary reforms replaced them first with the San Zhu and then the Wu Zhu , the latter would be continued to be manufactured for around years.

Cash (Chinese coin)

After Wang Mang usurped the throne he instituted various monetary reforms, in AD 9 he retained the Wu Zhu cash coins but introduced two new types of Knife money , between AD 9 and 10 he introduced an impossibly complex system involving tortoise shell , cowries , gold, silver, six round copper coins, and a reintroduction of the spade money in ten denominations. In AD 14, all these tokens were abolished, and replaced by another type of spade coin and new round coins. List of cash coins issued by the Xin dynasty:.

List of cash coins produced by the Kingdom of Khotan: List of Chinese cash coins issued during Three Kingdoms period: List of cash coins produced by the Kingdom of Kucha: List of Chinese cash coins produced during the Jin dynasty and Sixteen Kingdoms period: List of cash coins produced by the Northern and Southern dynasties: List of cash coins issued by the Tang dynasty: List of local issue cash coins of the Tang dynasty: List of cash coins produced by the Later Liang dynasty — List of cash coins produced by the Later Tang dynasty — List of cash coins produced by the Later Jin dynasty — List of cash coins produced by the Later Han dynasty — List of cash coins produced by the Later Zhou dynasty — List of cash coins attributed to the Former Shu Kingdom — List of cash coins attributed to the Kingdom of Min — List of cash coins attributed to the Kingdom of Chu — Cash coins produced by the Later Shu — include: Cash coins manufactured by the Southern Tang Kingdom — include: The cash coins produced by the Southern Han dynasty were: There is a very great variety of such coins; some have crescents on the reverse.

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The Kai character sometimes looks like yong Chinese: Characters and legends often reversed because the incompetent workmen had not mastered the art of engraving in negative to make the moulds. Some specimens have meaningless characters. These cash coins are typical of the hybrid inscriptions formed by combinations of inappropriate characters.

They also have series numbers on the reverse. The following cash coins were produced in the You Zhou Autonomous region which enjoyed virtual independence from the rest of the empire between and Liao dynasty coins like some contemporary Song dynasty coins can be read top-right-bottom-left clockwise , but unlike the Song's coinage never appeared top-bottom-right-left.

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Liao dynasty era cash coins have appeared in both Chinese and Khitan scripts , but the latter can more accurately be described as a type of Chinese numismatic charms as they weren't meant for circulation. List of cash coins produced by the Khitans under the Liao dynasty: The cash coins of the Song dynasty are notable in the aspect that many cash coins of the same era that use the same inscription and have the same nominale value has multiple Chinese calligraphic fonts.

Many Emperors of the Song dynasty personally wrote the calligraphy to be inscribed on the cash coin.

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The reading order of Song dynasty era cash coins exist in top-bottom-right-left and top-right-bottom-left orders. List of cash coins produced by the Northern Song dynasty: Li Shun was defeated and killed in the year List of cash coins issued by the Great Shu Kingdom: List of cash coins produced by the Southern Song dynasty: A number of cash coins were reported to have the reign titles of Northern Liao dynasty emperors, however as no historical records mention them the authenticity of these coins has been called into question.

List of cash coins presumably issued by the Khitan Northern Liao dynasty: Coins with Tangut inscriptions: Cash coins produced by the Jurchen Jin dynasty compared to earlier Liao dynasty coinage are both of higher quality, and quantity; this is because the Jurchens chose to model their coins more closely after the Song's both in production as superficially in its calligraphic style.

List of cash coins produced by the Jurchen Jin dynasty: During a coin hoard in the Russian Far East in seven cash coins were discovered that bore an inscription which was previously unknown, these coins bore a title alluding to a rebel state that was founded during the Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty.


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List of cash coins issued by the Jurchen Eastern Xia dynasty: Cash coins issued by the Mongols before Cash coins issued by the Mongol Empire while it occupied Jin dynasty territory circa — Under Mongol rule paper money such as the Chao banknotes completely replaced copper coinage, during times of inflation Temple coins issued by Buddhist temples became the de facto currency.

List of cash coins issued by the Mongols during Yuan dynasty: During the Red Turban rebellion organised by the White Lotus society; many of its leaders proclaimed their own kingdoms and empires that ruled over different regions of China, the most successful of these was Zhu Yuanzhang's Ming dynasty which would unify China. Though the majority of these countries were short-lived some did produce their own coinage.

Under the Ming dynasty the policy of predominantly using paper money such as the Da Ming Baochao banknotes which was started under the Mongols would continue until when Spanish dollars and other silver coins became the dominant currency. Native production of cash coins had ceased between and , from until , from as paper money superseded cast coinage completely until , and finally from until Yongle Tongbao cash coins were mostly cast for foreign trade.

From the Ming dynasty onwards only period titles were used for coin inscriptions and these period titles would usually remain constant throughout the reign of an Emperor. During the Hongzhi period from until some Tribal Commissioners in the province of Guizhou issued their own cash coins, rather than being bases on reign titles the inscriptions were based on place names. Under the Ming dynasty the territory which used to belong to the Dali Kingdom cast their own coins, these cash coins were issued in the province of Yunnan under the reign of the Hongzhi Emperor and are known to be of poor workmanship and crude casting, it is often unknown if these cash coins were cast by the Bai people in Dali , the Hmong tribes living in the area, or one of the many other tribes that live in Yunnan as records of their casting weren't bring kept.

These Yunnan local issue cash coins include: This is a list of cash coins produced during the transition from Ming to Qing. List of cash coins produced by the Southern Ming dynasty: Under Koxinga the Kingdom of Tungning which was a state loyal to the Southern Ming dynasty had ordered Yongli Tongbao cash coins to be produced presumably in Nagasaki , these coins circulated exclusively in Taiwan.

The production of these coins lasted until The following coins were issued by the Jurchens later Manchus before the establishment of the Qing dynasty, these coins were cast when the Jurchen state was known as the Later Jin dynasty: Qing dynasty era cash coins generally bear the reign title of the Emperor in Chinese characters, with only a single change of reign title occurring with the Qixiang Emperor becoming the Tongzhi Emperor by decision of his mother, Empress Dowager Cixi. New obverse inscriptions were introduced by the Kucha mint during the early twentieth century however the production of "red cash coins" with these new inscriptions didn't last very long as they featured only two different dates from the Chinese cyclical calendar during the Guangxu era and the Kucha mint closed in The following "red cash coins" with new inscriptions were produced by the Kucha mint in Xinjiang: During the Dungan revolt from to , Sultan Rashidin Khan Khoja proclaimed a Jihad against the Qing dynasty in , he issued Chinese-style cash coins minted at the Aksu and Kucha mints with exclusive Arabic inscriptions.

In the Taiping Rebellion was started by the head of the God worshippers Hong Xiuquan who founded the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom , this rebellion lasted until